From the Irish Roots Cafe Broadcast Network.
The Plantation of Ireland, Video Short. #8. Advance Shownotes.
Filmed live at the Irish Roots Festival workshops this year.
Todays Video Topic:
The Plantation of Ireland and the Wild Geese
Genealogy and Historical Record
All Lands Lost
Quoting the text we find that:
“With only two, or perhaps three exceptions, every native landlord, and
every native tenant within the bounds of the six counties was dispossessed
and displaced; and although a few of both classes were afterwards
permitted to share slightly in the great land-spoil, it was only in some other
and less attractive localities than their own”.
Indeed many would eventually come to the shores of North America and
other foreign lands as a result of this loss.
Of the main families the records show that the Maguires (or McGuires) who
occupied Fermanagh; The O’Hanlons who occupied ONealan and Orior; The
Macanas or the McCanns of Clann Breasail (Clanbrazill); and the
MacMahons of Monaghan; the ORiellys, the O’Cahans and others, had a long
and distinguished history. How had several families in the area ‘disappeared’
by the 19th century ? ”
Transfer of Land in Ireland
We focus today on the settlement of people mainly from England
and Scotland, and the old Irish families who lost the land. Under the
authority of the British Crown, it was a time of massive upheaval.
Untold numbers of Irish were forced from family lands. and the arrival
of new people who acquired the lands created a period of great unrest.
The time of this trouble is on and around the year 1609, and it is
referred to as ‘ The Plantation of Ulster.’ ( The new settlers were then,
‘planted’ in Ireland.)
Rare Manuscripts and State Papers
The best source to inform serious researchers on this period that
we have available is “The Conquest of Ireland: An Historical Account of
the Plantation in Ireland”. It is a rare work documenting the settlement,
right down to the names of the old and new landholders.
The author introduces his work as follows “The contents of this
volume (vol. 1), may be described.. as a compilation from State Papers
relating to the Plantation of Ulster… the Calendars of the Carew Manuscripts,
and of other important collections of Irish State Papers”. Before the Carew
Manuscripts little was known of the seven year struggle (1595 – 1602). For a
time before 1588 English rule was actually rather mysteriously popular, and
Shane O’Neill was finally defeated in 1567 by the O’Donnells rather than the government.”
This period of time in Ireland created many ‘Wild Geese”. Those fleeing
Ireland for a time, perhaps vowing to return in triumph one day.
This included the Irish nobility such as O’Neill and O’Donnell, as well as
many who joined the armed forces of other countries as a result of exile
from Ireland. The term ‘wild geese’ has been used for several similar periods in Irish history.
The plantation records around these events were of such value and
variety, that Hill prepared a history based upon and including these
manuscripts. The records were taken from the Patent Rolls of the
Period, the Inquisitions of Ulster, The Barony Maps of 1609, and other
original sources. The publication of this history and those documents
is of inestimable value to us today. A review of these volumes follows:
The Fall of Irish Chiefs and Clans
Volume 1 shows Ireland and her families as they were before the fall,
and as the plantation began. Volumes II, III & IV give more specific
details, right down to Pynnars record of each plot of land after the
upheaval. This is a rare record of the transfer of land to new owners
in Ireland. The 19th century historical footnotes are a history unto
themselves. The new surname index added to each volume is very
helpful for family research.
Specific list of jurors and list of those with lands are also given, such as:
“6th July, 1609.. applications are made by: James Carmichaell, of Pottieshaw,
in name of David Carmichaell his son, with Mr. John Ross, burgess of
Glasgow, as cautioner, 1,000 acres”.
“George Murray, of Bruchtoun,with Alexander Dumbar, of Egirnes…2,000 acres”.
Volume 2 - Names in the Land Grants.
Itemized land grants to English, Scots, and Irish. Identity of the specific
persons, location of lands, with historical commentary.
The Land Grants in this work are taken from the Patent Rolls of the reign
of James I and from the printed Ulster Inquisitions. The book is most
importantly arranged with the following sections:
Land Grants for the English (Undertakers), complete with names.
Land Grants for the Scottish (Undertakers), complete with names
Land Grants for the Servitors, complete with names
Land Grants to the Native Irish, complete with names
One short example of a land grant in Co. Tyrone follows:
Grant to Neale OQuin, gent, Ballineloughy, one balliboe, containing 60 acres
Rent 13 s
We are not left with only the dry ‘census’ type information here. Take the
example of Sir Richard Waldron, who is given with lands in the Precinct of
Loughtee, in County Cavan. Below the listings of his lands we find footnotes
telling us that Richard was the son of John Waldron, that he became a
knight, that there is record of a petition from him in 1610, and that his son,
Thomas Waldron came to live on the land there as well. This type of
commentary is often given on families found in the records.
Name Changes Documented
We also find many notations on family names and the spelling
of the same. Take the name Smelhome on the land record, which this book
also tells us is found as Smailholme in Scotland, and as Smethorne in an
inquisition in 1629. Take the name of ‘Cooke’, which was an alias of ‘Gray’ for one settler; and the name Calefield which was also spelled as Caulfield. Very helpful information if you are trying to trace someone in the family.
Volume 3 – Londonderry Lands and Families.
Londoners Settle in Ireland
This volume tells the story of the Londoners coming to settle in Ireland.
The settlement included the lands of: Loughinsholin, which had previously
belonged to Tyrone; the old county of Coleraine which had belonged to
OCahane; a small portion of the county of Donegal, including the island on
which the city of Derry stood; and a small portion of County Antrim
adjoining Coleraine. These were handed over to twelve London companies
for plantation … and united to form the the present county of Londonderry
Fall of Local Irish Families
The chief early Irish septs of this area were the OCahanes (Cahan or Kane), the OMullanes (Mullens or Mullins), the Magilliganes (Gilligan), and the McCloskies (McClusky).(See book index for full listings).
The background of the various Irish septs are given with notes on their status at that time. Important notes on persons and names are also given. For example, O’Cahan is found ridiculously translated as ‘Quyvally'; the story of how John O’Reilly became the ‘Queens’ O’Reilly; Mr. Canning we are told, had a wife named Anne who was the daughter of Gilbert Walker, of Walford, in Worcester, and they had three sons, and so on…
Here we also find footnotes to the text, telling us that Tristam Beresford was one of seven sons of Michael Beresford and Rose Knevitt, from the parish of Westram in the County of Kent. The footnotes go beyond these kinds of notes, into everyday life and customs of the day.
Volume 4 – A Special Census of Ireland; Pynnars Survey.
Pynnars Survey was to provide a report on each owner of land and its status in Counties Armagh, Tyrone, Donegal, Cavan, Fermanagh;……
Pynnars Survey gives us the real names of landholders, and the location/ condition of their property in Ireland. This includes Counties Armagh, Tyrone, Donegal, Cavan, and Fermanagh with notes on Londonderry. It was originally compiled as a result of the 17th century plantation of Ireland (1609+). A landholders census record, it set about to give us the results of the ‘planting’ of families from outside Ireland onto Irish lands. Here, Pynnar gives us the name and condition of Undertakers, servitors, and principal natives on these Ulster lands. The footnotes by Hill are of particular note, at times bringing updates into the 19th century.
A sample from a small entry:
Sir Alexander Hamilton(55) the first patentee. Jane Hamilton (56), late wife to Claude Hamilton, deceased, hath 2,000 acres, called Carrotobber and Clonkine. Upon this Proportion there is a strong castle, and a Bawne of Lime and Stone thouroughly finished with her family living there (….and in the over 1/2 page of footnotes on this family are given other inhabitants in 1629, namely George Griffin, Francis Cofyn, Stephen Hunt, and Richard Lighterfoot, all of whom had been granted deeds.)
As throughout this whole series, there are many notes on family names, locations and backgrounds. Of the name of John Whisher, Hill gives that it is ‘now’ written as Wishart, and that Carew writes it as Wyhard, and that he had returned to Scotland and returned and suffered many misfortunes. We also find lists of tenants who were not landowners in addition to the ‘census’ type material.
I thought this an important work for anyone interested in Irish
Genealogy or History. As a result we published this work as a hardbound 4 volume set. It is much more than a listing of names, it is a specific look at the history of the day, which continues to affect the Irish into modern times. For a more detailed look, complete with a photograph of the completed set, visit my web page at:
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